Over the last few years we have been having great fun exploring a new pastime, ceramics. Having spent a couple of years understanding and practicing the basics of building and glazing we are now beginning to have enough confidence to try out something more experimental. As with all experimentation this is sometimes successful but often not. However that is half the fun.
I think what I like most is the mix of art, engineering and science that goes into each piece you make. In addition to making something aesthetically pleasing you have to understand the mechanics of making it stand upright both during the build and firing. Finally the science around the glazes and the mix of oxides they contain is fascinating and often the outcome is unexpected.
Last autumn I came across this delightful group of mushrooms on a decaying piece of wood. These delicate groups are so transient and only last a few days so I felt there was an opportunity to capture this moment in time before they faded.
The resulting ceramic ‘mushroom-scape’ worked out rather well I think. The piece was hand crafted in crank stoneware clay to make it more robust for an outdoor piece. It was glazed in an Oatmeal glaze using different thicknesses of glaze to highlight the texture of the mushrooms and the ‘trunk’ base. I was particularly pleased how well the Oatmeal glaze reflected the colour of the real mushrooms.
The second set of pieces draw on seed heads from the garden. Nearest to the camera is a large nigella seed head and next to it an opium poppy seed head. Each stands about 5-7 inches high.
Something I learnt quite quickly is that to create both the look and a strong structure you have to mimic the way the plant itself constructs the seed head. This kind of work makes you look very closely into the detail of the form you are trying to build and this I find fascinating.
Both of these pieces are made using stoneware clay with the pieces shaped using various slump molds. The poppy seed head starts from two half spheres which are then joined and shaped. The nigella seed head is created from eight hollow teardrop shaped pieces that are joined at the edges to form the basic shape which is then refined.
Each of these pieces has been glazed with a Green Hue stoneware glaze with the addition of Tenmoku glaze. Tenmoku over Green Hue creates the lovely chestnut brown highlights.
Some things in the garden like peace and quiet and to be left undisturbed. I have a certain empathy with this! Lichens are not plants but something completely different. They are a composite organism that forms due to a symbiotic relationship between fungi and an algae or cyanobacteria. The fungi benefit from the carbohydrates produced through photosynthesis by the algae and the algae benefit from the protection of the fungal filaments which also collect moisture and nutrients.
The relatively undisturbed nature of stone walls and gravestones also make excellent habitats for lichens and the natural history of churchyards is explored in an interesting new book by Stefan Buczacki. (Book review: “Earth to Earth, A Natural History of Churchyards” by Stefan Buczacki). Lichens are also known to be good indicators of air quality with different lichens being more or less sensitive to air pollution.
There are three main growth forms; fruticose forms that have many stringy, leafless branches, foliose forms that have flat leaf-like structures and crustose forms that lie flat on the surface. Wikipedia suggests that there are over 20,000 species of lichen so I am not going to attempt to identify the ones shown here other than to indicate their growth form.
Here are my six lichens for Saturday.
There is a lot of detailed information about these fascinating composite organisms on Wikipedia.
Honey Pot Flowers are wedding and celebration florists based in Warwickshire in the United Kingdom specialising in natural, locally grown seasonal flowers. We grow many of our own flowers allowing us to offer something very different and uniquely personal.
We may not notice the presence of fungi in the garden for most of the year but in the autumn the reproductive part, the mushroom, begins to appear around the garden. There is such huge variety of forms and species that beginning to understand them more can be both challenging and fascinating.
A brief introduction
A fungus is made up of long strands or filaments called hyphae which form into cobweb type nets called mycelium. Unlike plants, fungi do not have chlorophyll and so cannot build up there own carbon compounds through photosynthesis. Like animals they take their sustenance from others, either dead or living plants or animals. Some fungi are particularly valuable to the gardener as part of the annual cycle, decomposing dead plant matter and returning nutrients to the soils.
Three groups of fungi that gardeners and flower growers should be aware of are:
Decomposers that break down and convert dead organic matter so that the plants can access it to make new fresh growth.
Mycorrhizal fungi that grow on or within plant roots and help enable plants to gain greater access to plant nutrients. These are commonly sold in garden centres these days particularly for use at planting time with shrubs and trees.
Pathogens that either reduce plant vigour or cause death. Typically you will notice these if your seedlings or young plants ‘damp-off’ but there are also many other disorders that are fungal in nature (as opposed to bacterial, viral or nutritional).
We will return to mycorrhizal fungi and pathogenic fungi in future blogs but for now we will concentrate on the very visible fungi in the garden, the autumn mushrooms. The mushrooms that you see are the fruiting bodies that produce and release microscopic reproductive spores. As far as I can see the words mushroom and toadstool seem to be interchangeable.
Identification of mushrooms
I must admit that I am very much a novice at identifying mushrooms but it is a challenge that I want to start to get to grips with.
If you find a specimen that you want to identify then taking a picture on your phone (though useful) is really not sufficient. You will need to note some or all of the following:
the size, shape, colour and texture of the cap;
the length and width and colour of the stem and whether it has a ring;
flesh colour and smell;
whether the mushroom has gills, tubes or teeth;
the attachment of the gills if they are present and their colour;
the colour of the spores; and
where you found them and whether they grew on grass, wood, leaf litter, dung etc.
If like me you struggle to tell the difference between all the many mushroom genera (and even more species within those genera) there are some places where you can get help:
Reference books – there are many of these but one that I have found very useful is “Mushrooms and other fungi of Great Britain and Europe” by Roger Phillips (ISBN 0-330-26441-9)
Facebook groups – these are always great fun and the Facebook Group “Mushroom Spotters UK” is very active at this time of year and is very informative
Identification phone Apps – I have been trying out the “Mushroom Identify – Automatic picture recognition” App on my Android phone. Great fun but I am not entirely sure how good it is yet. Basically you take one or more pictures of the specimen and let the phone have a go at identification. It typically gives you 4 or 5 suggestions and provides very effective links to further information and pictures. It certainly gets you started but you need to refer to other references as well.
In reality I find that I use all of these techniques on a single sample to try and hone down the list of ‘possibles’. Bit by bit the same suggestions appear and you begin to get more confident in your choice.
Two examples of recent finds (November 2017) in our flower garden are shown in the pictures below (possible Clitocybe nebularis) and at the start of this blog (possible Mycena sp.). It’s a fascinating subject and the diversity of what you will find when you begin to look closely is amazing. Have a go!
Just a final warning: Do not eat any mushrooms you don’t know. You could die.